Concept of Smart City began as far as back in the 1960’s and 1970’s when U.S Community Analysis Bureau (CAB) began using databases, aerial photography and cluster analysis to collect data, direct resources and issue reports in order to direct services, mitigate against disasters and reduce poverty.(Generation of Ist introduction to Smart City Mission).
Smart City is a innovative and new initiative by the Government of India to drive economic growth and improve the quality of living Standards and enabling local development and harnessing technology that lead to smart outcomes. Smart City covers aspect of Communication and Information Technology (ICT) to improve efficiency, share information with public and provide quality services of Government. It also provides growth using smart technologies and data Analysis.
Smart city technologies:
Smart city uses a variety of S/W, User Interface & Communication Network along the Internet of things (IOT) to deliver connected solutions for the public. Along the IOT solution, Smart city uses technology of:-
* Application program Interface(API)
* Artificial Intelligence(AI)
* Cloud Computing Services.
* Machine learning.
* Machine -to- Machine Communication.
* Mesh Network.
Smart city is determined by set of main characteristics as :-
A) Technology Infrastructure.
B) Progressive City Plans.
C) Effective Public Transportation.
D) Determined City Plans.
Smart City relies on the relationship between public and private Sector as much as work to create and drive environment that falls outside the Government remit. Smart city uses the framework of information and Communication technologies to create, deploy and promote development practices to address urban challenges and create a joined-up technologically enabled and sustainable Infrastructure.
How Smart City Works:-
Smart City follows four Steps to improve quality of life and enable economic growth through a network of connected IOT devices and other technologies. Stages are as follows:-
* Collection- Smart Sensors gather real time data
* Analysis – Data is analyzed to gain insights into the operation of City
Services and operations
* Communication- The results of data analysis are communicated to decision makers.
* Action- Action is taken to improve operations, manage assets and improve the quality of city life for the residents.
The ICT framework brings together real time data from connected assets, objects and machines to improve decision making. However in addition ,citizens are able to engage and interact with smart city ecosystems through mobile devices and connected vehicles and buildings. By pairing devices with data and the infrastructure of the city, it is possible to cut costs, Improve sustainability and streamline factors such as energy distribution and refuse collection as well as offering reduced traffic congestion and improve air quality.
Why Smart City is Important:-
Smart City allows citizens and local Government authorities to work together to launch initiatives and use Smart technologies to manage assets and resources in the growing urban environment
Strategic Components and Core Elements:-
Pan city initiative in which at least One Smart Solution is applied city wide. Develop across step-by-step 3 models of area based development.
* Green field development.
* Adequate water Supply .
* Assured electricity Supply.
* Sanitation including Solid waste
* Efficient Urban mobility & public transport.
* Affordable housing, especially for the poor.
* Robust IT connectivity & digitalization.
* Good Governance ,especially e-Gov & citizen participation.
* Sustainable environment.
* Safety and Security of citizens particularly women, children and elderly.
* Health & education.
Smart city feature combining automation, machine learning and the IOT is allowed for the adoption of smart city technologies for the variety of applications for e.g. a smart city parking can help drivers to find a parking space and also allow for digital payment. Another example of Smart City would be Traffic management to monitor traffic flows and optimize traffic lights to reduce congestion while ride sharing services can also be managed by Smart city Infrastructure. Smart city initiatives can also be used to combat climate changes via Internet enabled rubbish collection bins and fleet management systems.
Aside from Services Smart city allows the provision of safety measures such as monitoring areas of high crime or using sensors to enable an early warning for incidents like Flood, landslide, hurricane and droughts .Smart building can also offer real time Space management or Structural health monitoring and feedback to determine when repairs are necessary. In addition smart city can improve efficiency of manufacturing, urban farming; energy use and more .It can connect all manner of services to provide joined up solution for citizens.
In view, the objective is to promote sustainable and inclusive cities that provide core Infrastructure to give a decent quality of life to citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of Smart Solutions, create a replicable model which will act like a lighthouse to other aspiring cities.
(The author is EDP Supervisor, DMRR&R Department)