Prof P L Kaul
10th December was celebrated as International Human Rights Day recently. The concept of Human rights holds great significance in our lives especially in today’s time when the exploitation of Human rights is increasing day by day. The humanity is at cross road. A look at the World history shows that great deal of several bloody and brutal struggles has been put by people in different countries, America, France, and Russia at different times to have their rights recognised by their rulers, as late as eighteenth century. Second World War (1935-45) in Europe raised serious concerns throughout the World with regard to human rights and their protection. Thus came the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the general Assembly of the United Nation on 10th December, 1948, adopted by the then existing member countries and it marks the first corner stone of the International movement for Human rights which became a basis for further promotion of Human rights in other countries. In connection of this historic event, the World is celebrating every year Inter National Human Rights day on 10th December. It is the culmination of man’s struggle for peace after gruesome World Wars .The declaration states that recognition and respect for human rights is the foundation of freedom, peace and justice in the world without distinction as to race, sex, language, or region. It shall promote understanding, tolerance, and friendship among all nations, social and religious groups and further the activities of UN for maintenance of peace. Everybody in India is aware of the struggle and sacrifices put by the freedom fighters to wrench freedom from the British rule. Likewise people of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladhak were deprived of their constitutional rights on account of article 370 and 35A by those who ruled the state for the last seven decades, and it has not only deprived the daughters of the state of their rights but also of the West Pakistan refugees and Valmaki Samaj. Scrapping of special status of earstwhile state of J&K By Prime Minister Modiji and his BJP Govt on August 5, 2019 is a mile stone for securing human rights and a stepping stone to peace and development for J&K, and Ladhak. His assuring words for Kashmiri Hindus living the exiled life for the last 30 years that they would be settled in their home land with full honour and security. Hope has rekindled in Kashmiri pundits that things will turn better now.
The development of fundamental rights in India was inspired by historical events and struggle put by people in different countries for recognition of their rights. The task of developing a Constitution for the nation was undertaken by the Constitution of India, on Dec, 9 1946 under the Presidency of Dr Rajendra Prasad. Dr B.R. Ambedkar became the Chairperson of the Drafting Committee, while Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallb hbhai Patel, became Chair persons of its subcommittee. The rights are inherent in nature and have come up in our society over the years, enabling a man to live under no fear of threat and fear. These rights are fundamental or essential for human existence and all round development of individuals and strengthening of Democracy and are regulated by the rule of law. It is the duty of Govt to enforce and protect the human rights irrespective of caste,creed,colour,sex,religion and place of birth. These are enshrined in part 111(Article12to 35) of constitution of India which are listed as 1),right to equality,2)right to freedom of speech and expression,3)right against exploitation,4)right to freedom of religion,5) cultural and educational rights,6)right to constitutional remedies,7)right to privacy. In India on 12th Oct 1993, NHRC was established and accordingly in States SHRC was started. Its first Chairman Mr Ranganath Misra emphasised that human rights should find a place in curriculum. .
Human rights violations continue unabated with increasing bloodshed in the name of religion, caste, region, language and incidences of corruptions, murders, and rapes of innocent women taking place every now and then. There seems no end to these. We have to awaken the youth and society to take lead in promoting human right and preventing human rights violations to make this planet a better place to live in peace. Youth are the strength and life line of any Nation. Youth’s potential and energy can be best utilised for the progress of the Nation in maintaining Peace, Brotherhood and Equality and can take India to the highest pinnacles of economic prosperity and glory. We have to safeguard rights of weaker and marginalised sections of the society. Vales of unity, honesty, nonviolence, brotherhood, love and tolerance are essential to remove all discrimination and hatred to promote human rights, for which such virtues and values are to be, invoked and inculcated among youth and students. The role of education is gaining importance in promoting human rights. Awareness of rights will empower the people to protect their own rights and those of others. It is collective efforts of all to care about human rights that can bring a change.
Duties and rights both are co-related and complimentary to each other. The fundamental duties are defined as moral obligation of all citizens to help promote human rights and spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India.
These duties of Indian citizen are 1), Abide by constitution and respect National flag and National Anthem, 2) Follow ideals of freedom struggle, 3) Protect sovereignty and integrity of India,4) defend the country and render National Services when called for,5) Spirit of common brotherhood, 6)Preserve composite culture, 7)Preserve Natural environment, 8)Develop scientific temper,9 )Safe guard public property,10)Strive to excellence, 11)Duty towards parents to send their children 6-14 years age to school. You pledge today, that you consider human rights and moral duties as an essential part of my education and make every effort to inculcate these values and practice in my personal, social and professional life to promote human rights in the society. Let us explore the cementing bonds and project them in the neighbourhood, in the community, in the society, in the nation and in the international arena. The goal is unite the human race through human rights education.
(The author is State In charge Swachh Bharat Mission, UT, J&K)
Prof P L Kaul