Need of Skill Development for Rural Youths

Dr. Banarsi Lal and
Dr. Vikas Tandon
Majority of India’s population still lives in the villages. The numbers of youths are also increasing in the villages. The number of youth is increasing faster than the rate of job creation.  Youths are considered as the future of any nation. Youths play a crucial and substantial role in the development of the nation. Almost nine out of 10 youths live in the developing countries. Youth make one fourth of world population and in India, the number of youths are the highest. India has earned the distinction of being called as the nation of youths. Growing number of youths in India require the right educational infrastructure to develop skills and adequate opportunities to get employed or become entrepreneurs. The wide gap between those who have access to education and skill development opportunities and those who do not have is a challenge that needs to be overcome. In India 72.2 per cent of the Indian  population lives in the rural areas.12 per cent of the world population lives in the Indian villages which makes it bigger than the size of Europe.80 per cent of the rural households are having small and marginal farms. Although share of agriculture in the Indian GDP is declining but still it engages around half of the country’s population. Persons engaged 15-29 years who are considered as the youth accounted for 26 per cent of rural population. Only about 21 per cent of rural males and 12 per cent of rural females are educated at secondary level and above. Indian youths are looking for the employment and the industries are suffering from availability of skilled workers. The skill mismatch makes the youths unemployable. It is astonishing that literacy rate and educational levels though have increased but about 89 per cent of youths do not take any vocational training. Youth’s labour market also faces the problem of organised labour market, lower income and unhygienic conditions of work and lack of social security.  Rural youths start working from their childhood. Sometimes they are forced to work as bonded labourers. Some rural youths are decently educated but they do not get the desired jobs as per their qualifications. Rural youths work in the fields but they lack the innovative ideas that are making agriculture bitter and unattractive for them. There are various factors which make rural youths unemployable.
Rapid increase in population
It is expected that within 20 years the population of India will be doubled. No country can guarantee employment to its growing population in such a rapid rate. Family programme in India have not yielded the desired results. Thus, new ways o to handle this issue needs to be meticulously planned to accommodate the increasing population in the respective works. There is need to create innovative jobs for the youths so that they can be empowered.
Pressure on Land
India is having a limited area under cultivation and thus efforts are being made to convert the barren land into agricultural land. There is great pressure on the land due to increasing population. In rural areas most of the people depend on the agriculture for their livelihood and this situation makes them unemployable as they are lacking the modern techniques of agriculture. Providing land to the landless rural youths can open the new gate of employment for them.
Lack of awareness on
modern agriculture
Rural people lack the awareness on modern methods of agriculture. This makes their task cumbersome and time consuming. Vocational trainings on mushroom cultivation, beekeeping, dairy farming, value addition in fruits and vegetables etc. can create employment in the rural areas.
Seasonal agriculture
Agriculture in India is seasonal in nature. Farmers are very busy at sowing and harvesting time. People in rural areas get employment only for few months. This has adverse impact on the earnings of the farmers and their standard of living. During the vacant period, the employment should be provided to the farmers. This will help the farmers to earn more money in free time. During the free time the rural youths can be utilized for the   vocational training programmes to start entrepreneurship in agriculture in the rural areas.
Lack of job oriented courses
Many rural youths join any course without proper guidelines. Such courses don’t bear compatibility to the innate talent of youths that remain as degree for them without any kind of job. They again go to their villages and do agriculture.
Job creation in a calendar year
Every year many rural youths come out with flying colours. Out of them some get the jobs but majority remains without jobs. It has been observed that many students are not opting for the professional courses. Many seats in the professional courses remain vacant. Decent jobs require quality education and skill development trainings. Skill development courses can work as a vehicle for a change in the rural areas and can enhance the income and employment for the rural youths. Besides hard skills, the weightage on communication skills, upkeep of the employees, language proficiency, hygiene, punctuality etc. should also be taught to the trainees.
Solutions of employment
in the rural areas
There is dire need to control the increasing population. Although the government has taken various steps to control the population but still the desired results are awaited. There is need to improve the quality of the Indian education system. Job oriented courses should be emphasized. Government needs to focus on the skill education. The education should be on the basis of the current industrial requirements. With education practical knowledge should be provided. Youths should select the institute where proper education and trainings are imparted. In order to avoid the rural migration government should encourage the rural based industries. More employment should be generated in the rural areas during the off season of the year. Development in rural areas will stop the rural migration and thus reduce the pressure on the urban areas.
The National Skill Development Mission (NSDM) has been developed to impart skill development trainings in different states. This mission is making efforts to consolidate and coordinate skilling efforts. This mission is also supported by the National Skill Development Agency, National Skill Development Corporation and Directorate General of Trainings. Upgrading Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development (USTTAD) scheme aims at upgrading skills and training of minority communities by preservation of traditional ancestral arts and crafts. Significant emphasis needs to be given to the rural youths and they should be viewed as an investment opportunity and be treated as partners in growth and development. Many rural youths remain unemployed due to lack of knowledge of job oriented courses, lack of technical expertise, lack of knowledge of modern agriculture etc. In order to mitigate the problem of unemployment for the rural youths, policy interventions should promote quality education and jobs oriented trainings. Credit assistance and marketing assistance should be provided to the self-employed youths.


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